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Table INF-1. Prevalence of HIV infection among injecting drug users in the EU, 2005 or most recent year available - Summary table by country

Country or regionYearNumber tested% infected (1)Study design (2) Setting/comments (3, 4, 5) References
Belgium2004-05439[2.7-12.9]DT ; SRLTS, DTC, 48 sites; serum8 ; 14 ; 15 ; 16
Bulgaria2005827[0.4]DTDTC, NSP, LTS, HTC, PRI2 ; 3
Czech Republic2004-052556 0.0-2.7 [0.0]DT ; SRPHL, STI, ANT, OHC, PRI, HTC, DTC, LTS, STR, NSP; serum, saliva; IDUnkT1b ; 5 ; 10
Denmark 20052202.3SP (UAT)ODD; All drug related deaths who have a blood sample taken at autopsy; IDUnk7
Germany 2004-0523163.7-5.3 [12.0]DT ; SROTH (interviews with users from the open scene), ODD (drug related deaths trought accident, long term effects, suicide), DTC; IDUnkT17 ; 22 ; 25 ; 26 ; 28
Estonia2005449[54.3-89.9]SPLTS; dried blood spots4
Ireland 200364[12.5]SPDTC, serum14
Greece 200518340.3 [0.0-1.0]DTDTC, LTS, PHL, OHC; serum1 ; 2 ; 9
Spain2004-061554325.4-39.7DT ; SRDTC, PRI35 ; 36
France 2004817[1.0-32.0]SP (UAT)n.a.19
Italy 20056584813.8 [2.2-39.7]DTDTC; serum, saliva; IDUnk31
Latvia200312856.6-9.7 / [22.0]DT ; SPDTC, OHC, NSP, STR, HIV counselling centre and outreach workers; serum4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 7
Lithuania20051442[1.2-27.0]DTDTC, NSP, LTS, STR; serum, dried blood spots 5 ; 6 ; 7 ; 8
Luxembourg20054292.5-4.0SR ; SPDTC, LTS, OHC, PRI, Judicial Police, NSP, STI, ANT; serum 5 ; 6
Hungary2005790.0DTPHL; serum1 ; 5
Malta2005830.0DTDTC; serum3
Netherlands2002452[9.5]SPDTC, STR, methadone post; saliva5 ; 10 ; 21
Austria200555611.9 [0.0-3.1]DTLTS, PHL, GPS, HTC, NSP, ODD, DTC; serum6 ; 7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 10 ; 11
Poland2004-05766[2.4-31.5]SP ; DTDTC, LTS, STR, PRI, PHL, HTC; serum5 ; 6
Portugal2005595112.0-20.5 [42.9]DTDTC, Outpatient units, Therapeutic communities, Public detoxification units; serum, dried blood spots; IDUnkT23 ; 24
Romania2004-05263[1.1]DT ; SPDTC; serum2
Slovenia2004-058970.4 [0.0]DT ; SP (UAT)NSP, DTC; saliva, serum1 ; 2
Slovakia2003-041036[0.0]DTDTC3 ; 7
Finland 2004-0521750.2 [0.0-2.7]DT ; SP (UAT)NSP, PRI; serum, saliva6
Sweden2006358[6.4]SRPRI, ARR, 2 sites; serum8
United Kingdom20055867[0.8-3.2]DT ; SP (UAT)DTC, NSP, LTS, PHL, STR, primary care and outreach, named HIV tests; saliva, serum36 ; 37 ; 38 ; 39
Turkey200438[0.0]DTDTC; serum1
Norway2005258[0.4]SPNSP, STR, LTS; serum8


 This summary table gives a global overview of HIV prevalence in IDUs in the EU, 2004-2005 or most recent year available. Data for more than one year are combined if they clearly improve generalisability (e.g. national data, out-of-treatment data). Prevalence in this table should not be compared with previous versions to follow changes over time, as inclusion of sources may vary according to data availability. For time trends see Tables INF 8-10 in the annex of this statistical bulletin.   

 n.a. = not available             

 (1) The figures given in brackets show local estimates (or range of estimates) within the country.   

 (2) Self-reported test results are less reliable than biological test results.   

 DT: Diagnostic testing; SP: seroprevalence study; SP-UAT: seroprevalence study with unlinked anonymous testing; SR: data (partly) based on self reported test results.   

 (3) Having health problems is one selection criterion for admission to drug treatment in some countries or cities (Greece, Portugal, Rome), due to long waiting lists or special programmes for infected IDUs, and this may result in upward bias of prevalence. Prevalence from treatment data should therefore be interpreted in combination with non-treatment data. On the other hand, data from Italy and Portugal include non-IDUs and may thus underestimate prevalence in IDUs.    

 (4) IDUnk = IDU status not known, prevalence may be too low.       

 (5) ODD = overdose deaths; DEM = drug emergencies; DTC = drug treatment centres; NSP = needle exchanges; LTS = low-threshold services; PHL = public health laboratories; STI = STI clinics; ANT = antenatal clinics; OHC = other hospital or clinics; PRI = prisons; ARR = arrests; GPS = general practitioners; HTC = HIV testing centres; STR = street; OTH = other.   

 Czech Republic: only one of the three national studies available is IDUnk (n = 511; 2.7% infected). Germany: two of the three studies available are IDUnk (national: n = 843; 3.7% infected. sub-national: n = 147; 12.0% infected). Bulgaria: one of the two studies available is IDUnk (sub-national: n = 115; 2.6% infected). Portugal: three of the five studies available are IDUnk (all national: n = 2824; 917; 3962 - 13.0%; 12.0%; 16.0% respectively).   


 See Table INF-8.   

Page last updated: Wednesday, 07 November 2007