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Treatment demand indicator (TDI)


Tables TDI-1, Table TDI-2 and Table TDI-7 present information on the number of people entering treatment for drug use, the number of treatment units covered in the country and the number of existing units. Treatment demand data come from each country with varying degrees of national coverage, principally from outpatient and inpatient clinics treatment records Data also provide insight into general trends in drug use and also offer a perspective on the organisation and uptake of treatment. The same data are presented for all clients entering treatment and for those, among them, who entered treatment for the first time in their life.

Tables TDI-1 to TDI-8 are based on data from all types of treatment centres concerning new clients and all clients; they present the current situation for 2008 data or most recent year available and the trend for the last 11 years (1997 to 2008) where data are available.

Tables TDI-9 to TDI-24 report data on clients’ characteristics and patterns of drug use from outpatient and inpatient treatment centres. In particular, they report data on age and gender, primary drug for entering treatment, primary drug by type of treatment centre, age of clients at treatment entry by primary drug, age at first use of primary drug, source of referral to treatment, route of administration of primary drug, frequency of use of primary drug, secondary drug, educational level, labour and living conditions. Some tables only refer to outpatient treatment clients (Tables TDI-9 on age and gender distribution, TDI-17 on route of administration).

Tables TDI-25 to TDI-33 describe the age distribution, mean age and the age at first use and time lag between first drug use and first treatment entry for the primary drug among male and female clients.

Tables TDI-36 to TDI-37 describe drug clients entering treatment for primary use of amphetamines or ecstasy.

TDI-38 refer to the total number of clients in treatment during the year 2007 (or most recent year available) and include those who entered treatment for the first time in their life, those who have entered treatment for the first time during the year and those who are in treatment since at least more than one year.

Tables TDI-102 to TDI-115 are tables reporting detailed data by country and by primary drug. In particular:

Figures TDI-1 to TDI-7 are graphics on trends and characteristics of drug treatment clients in Europe.

Summary points

  • Around 44 0000 people have been recorded as entering specialised drug treatment centres in Europe in 2008 in 29 countries; data mainly cover outpatient and inpatient treatment centers
  • Most clients enter treatment on their own initiative or under the pressure of family and friends (43 %); 27 % go to drug treatment through health or social services, including other drug treatment centres; around 20 % are referred to treatment by the criminal justice system, and the remaining through other referral sources
  • The most frequent reason for entering treatment in 2008 (or most recent year available), is the use of heroin (48 % of all drug users and around 200 000 people), followed by cannabis (21 % and around 85 000 people) and cocaine use, (17 % and around 70 000 people), use of stimulants other than cocaine (5 % and around 22 000 clients) and other drugs use, which include hypnotics and sedatives, hallucinogens, volatile and other substances
  • Among those who have entered treatment for the first time in their life the proportion of heroin users is lower and that of cocaine, cannabis users and clients consuming stimulants other than cocaine (mainly amphetamine and methamphetamine) is higher
  • Differences between countries are relevant with 18 countries reporting more than 50 % of primary opioid users among drug clients, 8 countries with more than 20 % of primary cannabis clients and 3 countries with more than 20 % of cocaine clients.
  • Stimulants other than cocaine, which will be the subject of one of 2010 selected issue are concentrated in some countries, namely the Scandinavian countries (amphetamine), Czech Republic and Slovakia (methamphetamine)
  • Clients are mainly males (4 males for every female), with a mean age 31 years (those who have entered treatment for the first time are on average 1 year younger)
  • Most clients start their drug use before the age of 20, around one third of the clients inject their primary drug, and the frequency of use varies by the main drug (the highest proportion of daily users is found among opioid clients and the lowest among users of stimulants other than cocaine)
  • Social conditions of drug users entering treatment are generally poorer than in the general population (education, living and labour conditions)
  • Differences are reported by primary drug and by country regarding gender, age distribution and patterns of drug use

Page last updated: Tuesday, 29 June 2010